Pointers and Memory

Stanford CS Education Library: a 31 page introduction to programming with pointers and memory in C, C++ and other languages. Explains how pointers and memory work and how to use them -- from the basic concepts through all the major programming techniques. Can be used as an introduction to pointers for someone with basic programming experience or as a quick review. Many advanced programming and debugging problems only make sense with a solid understanding of pointers and memory -- this document tries to provide that understanding.

Topics include: pointers, local memory, allocation, deallocation, dereference operations, pointer assignment, deep vs. shallow copies, the ampersand operator (&), bad pointers, the NULL pointer, value parameters, reference parameters, pointer to pointers, dynamic heap memory, memory ownership models, and memory leaks. The article focuses on pointers and memory in compiled languages like C and C++ with occasional notes about Java.

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